The LoRaWAN protocol is a Low Power Wide Area Networking (LPWAN) communication protocol that functions on LoRa. The LoRaWAN specification is open so anyone can set up and operate a LoRa network.
LoRa is a wireless audio frequency technology that operates in a license-free radio frequency spectrum. LoRa is a physical layer protocol that uses spread spectrum modulation and supports long-range communication at the cost of a narrow bandwidth. It uses a narrow band waveform with a central frequency to send data, which makes it robust to interference.
LoRaWAN is a LPWAN protocol. It defines medium access control (MAC) features and message formats that are delivered to a proprietary physical layer called long-range (LoRa). LoRaWAN is developed and continually updated by the LoRa Alliance and LoRa was developed by Semtech Corporation. LoRaWAN networks are typically deployed in a star-to-stars topology in which gateways relay messages between end nodes and a central network server (NS), and NS routes the packets from each device to the associated application server. Gateways and the network server are connected using secured standard internet protocol (IP) connectivity. On the other side, end nodes are connected to one or many gateways using single-hop LoRa. More specific details of LoRa and LoRaWAN are described in the following subsection.
The Things Fundamentals exam is an entry-level assessment for LoRaWAN that is part of The Things Certification program. The Things Fundamentals exam is intended for everyone who needs to officially validate their skills and fundamental knowledge around the LoRaWAN standard. The Things Fundamentals certification is an opportunity to prove knowledge of the LoRaWAN specifications, configurations and network realization.
The Things Advanced exam is an advanced-level assessment for LoRaWAN that is part of The Things Certification program. The Things Advanced exam is intended for everyone who needs to officially validate their expert knowledge around LoRaWAN. The Things Advanced certification is an opportunity to prove one’s detailed know-how in the LoRaWAN specification, design of scalable LoRaWAN solutions, realizing LoRaWAN coverage and optimizing communication performance. Candidates should be able to differentiate between LoRaWAN 1.0 and 1.1.